Food Preservation Methods
For centuries people have discovered and perfected different ways of preserving food. It is worthwhile to study this area to make our culinary life healthier. What’s important, our food will always be fresh.
Appertisation preservation process inhibits microorganisms in food from further development. Expertise is a method of preserving food originated by Nicolas Appert in 1810. It is based on cooking food for a long time in containers that are in the water. It is one of the methods of pasteurization.
In the process of appertisation, harmful microorganisms, which can be found in food, are disabled in further development, so this food is completely safe without the taste being changed. Both fruits and vegetables can be preserved in this way.
Ludwig Pasteur invented the pasteurization method while conducting a research on the fermation process. By pasteurization, the food is heated until the microorganisms are destroyed. The classic pasteurization method is to heat food above 60ºC but not to reach 100ºC. It is crucially known that this method allows foods to contain their taste and nutritional qualities, without losing the vitamins it contains.
Freezing is the most modern and most effective method of conserving food. Food freezes at different temperatures; vegetables and fruits are frozen to about 30 to -40 ° C, and meat between -20 ° C and -40 ° C. Frozen products will retain the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the original product. This method, more than any other known method of preservation, allows food to preserve the most of its nutritional elements, such as vitamins, so important for our bodies, and minerals, proteins and fats. But one frozen food must not be frozen again.
Pickling and fermentation
Pickling is a biological method of food preservation. It is based on the formation of lactic acid as a result of milk fermentation. The pickling method is mostly used for vegetables. Acid allows the preservation of food with all its nutritional values. Cabbage ripening is a common practice that is popular in many European countries. Properly acidified cabbage should be packaged in special barrels. It is important to add the brine during the pickling process, because it stimulates the secretion of fluid from the cabbage, and accelerates the development of lactic acid bacteria.
Drying is a method of conserving food that is often used in households and in food processing plants. The drying method, although well known for hundreds of years, has been constantly improving. In the drying process, water is removed from food, which is an effective protection against microorganisms. This method is used, for example, in tea and coffee processing, pasta production and dried fruit.
The process of smoking, the meat, fish or cheese, is carried out in the chambers for drying and smoking, where the food is subjected to smoke: burning mainly from wood of deciduous trees. Apart from the fact that in this way the food is preserved, it receives a special smell and taste.